The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., \u0026 Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., \u0026 Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., \u0026 Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., \u0026 Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Reacties 

  1. Christian412 America

    Christian412 America

    8 uur geleden

    The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

  2. SuperSonic Boom

    SuperSonic Boom

    10 uur geleden

    Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

  3. Michael Kurek

    Michael Kurek

    10 uur geleden

    It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

  4. Guy Fox

    Guy Fox

    12 uur geleden

    IT'S GOD! LOL

  5. Samaila Abdullahi

    Samaila Abdullahi

    16 uur geleden

    I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on NLid who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

  6. RD2564

    RD2564

    Dag geleden

    Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

  7. David Blank

    David Blank

    Dag geleden

    So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      17 uur geleden

      "So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

  8. DeadEndFrog

    DeadEndFrog

    Dag geleden

    well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

  9. lalit pal

    lalit pal

    Dag geleden

    I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

  10. wildstar2424242424

    wildstar2424242424

    Dag geleden

    A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet

  11. Mike Tacos

    Mike Tacos

    Dag geleden

    13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.

  12. Mike Tacos

    Mike Tacos

    Dag geleden

    Then someone breaks the glass.

  13. Chris Koll

    Chris Koll

    2 dagen geleden

    I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...

    • mwuaha

      mwuaha

      Dag geleden

      what?

  14. Truther

    Truther

    2 dagen geleden

    Are tests like this being done on viruses?

  15. FuriousGeezer

    FuriousGeezer

    2 dagen geleden

    So what you are saying is, after 75,000 generations, it's just better bacteria, but in the same amount of generations we went from monkey to man? Why didn't it macro evolve?

    • FuriousGeezer

      FuriousGeezer

      Dag geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 fair enough! I am still seeing no evidence of macro evolution, but that timeline sure makes it look like more of a possibility. My timeline was clearly off

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      Dag geleden

      @FuriousGeezer "it's a long time from bacteria to monkey" Monkeys are not descended from bacteria. "We get what a billion or so years?" 3.5 billion from first life to complex life, another 100 million to get on land, another 150 million for mammals, another 100 million for primates, another 50 for humans. Approximately.

    • FuriousGeezer

      FuriousGeezer

      Dag geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 Both are human though, yes. I poorly worded it.

    • FuriousGeezer

      FuriousGeezer

      Dag geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 it's a long time from bacteria to monkey and again to man. Not sure there is time for that🤷🏼‍♂️. We get what a billion or so years?

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      Dag geleden

      In the same number of generations, our ancestors went from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Both of those are humans.

  16. Neiley

    Neiley

    2 dagen geleden

    so how long til one of the containers crawls off? :P

  17. sf

    sf

    2 dagen geleden

    using the same needle for different flask samples???!!

  18. Bangs Cutter

    Bangs Cutter

    2 dagen geleden

    The human scale equivalent of this would be alien abduction encounters, where aliens continuously sample humans as they observe our evolution.

  19. Brad Shymon

    Brad Shymon

    2 dagen geleden

    Shouldn't forget all the generations of students who evolved the professor's knowledge and status! 🧐

  20. realitycheck2001

    realitycheck2001

    3 dagen geleden

    Wait. She wasn’t wearing gloves. Am I missing something?

  21. Gary CLark

    Gary CLark

    3 dagen geleden

    Ok thats stretch of a comparison. The mutations of a one cell bacterium are quite different than the mutations that would have to occur for an ape like creature to transform into what man is today. I don't care how many million years you tack on to it.

    • Gary CLark

      Gary CLark

      2 uur geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 my reasoning for specific placements of species is as follows: Many species remain virtually unchanged for millions of years, then suddenly disappear to be replaced by a quite different, but related, form. Moreover, most major groups of animals appear abruptly in the fossil record, fully formed, and with no fossils yet discovered that form a transition from their parent group. This pattern is contrary to what would be expected from Darwinian evolution. Your partially right about laws and theories. I don't think one is better than the other, theories are more complex and less quantifiable. Going into the whys and hows. scientific law predicts the results of certain initial conditions. I think that evolution is as well established in proof and data as it should be considering it's been around for about 150 years. Genetics has punched more holes in it lately. I think we need more information from all kinds of sources, and not to rely on random chance mutations to explain the propagation of species on the whole planet without stepwise fossil records. I am however enjoying this conversation. It's been helpful to me to continue to formulate my ideas about how things came to be, so thank you.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      19 uur geleden

      @Gary CLark "I would consider flurishing of species is a metric of evolution" And what do you mean by flourishing? Think about it this way: At the end of this, we need to plug something into an equation. What is the *number*? ""survival of the fittest" I would also consider a metric of evolution." Great. Fitness here means differential reproductive success, which can be mathematically modeled. Chimpanzees have massively greater fitness in their environment than humans. Humans have higher fitness in ours. Both are extremely fit in their own environments. " I am using opinion because all these Ideas are theory" Theory isn't opinion, it is the highest level of science backed by monumental amounts of evidence. "and that many organisms are crafted in such a way as to place the greatest amount of organisms in a space where all can thrive" And what is the known mechanism to accomplish that? "we are quite a long way off from a law of evolution" There are many laws in evolution. A law in science is just a mathematical correlation. Laws are lower than theory, since theories contain many laws.

    • Gary CLark

      Gary CLark

      Dag geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 I would consider flurishing of species is a metric of evolution. , "survival of the fittest" I would also consider a metric of evolution. if these aren't metrics of evolution like the ability of the bacteria to evole to overcome the antibiotics and contitue to propogate, then what are we even talking about. I am using opinion because all these Ideas are theory, we have fossil records of what we think might have happened, we have similar genetic and physical structures that would indicated a similar ancestor, but let say for example that the reason for similar structures is that it this structure is best suited for it's environment and that many organisms are crafted in such a way as to place the greatest amount of organisms in a space where all can thrive. your talking like there are 1 set of facts that guide all of evolution and if it doesn't fit into some arbitrarily defined catagory than it isn't true, I'm saying we are quite a long way off from a law of evolution if there ever can be one. The problem is we don't know what we don't know.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      Dag geleden

      @Gary CLark "less than 1billion in 1900 now we have almost 7 billion." Yes, the population has increased substantially. If you think that means 'more evolution', you're mistaken. "Suited to their environment and creating their own environment are two different things." Yes, because only one of them is indicative of evolution. So the substantial increase in population in humans isn't indicative of anything. "We are responsible for the sheep growth" Okay... So what's the metric for success again? You haven't said. "We are at the top of the apex hierarchy, which means have to power to destroy every living creature on the planet including ourselves." Which is technological advancement, not evolution. So still no point... "I would call that evolutionary superiority." You would definitely be wrong, then. That one isn't a matter of opinion. If it isn't evolution-related, it can't be evolutionary superiority. "Man does kill and for most of recorded history killing has been deemed immoral." If killing itself was immoral, the word 'murder' wouldn't exist. In any event, that introduces the possibility that a subset of chimpanzees might be doing something the rest consider immoral. Which essentially confirms my point. So...

    • Gary CLark

      Gary CLark

      Dag geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 less than 1billion in 1900 now we have almost 7 billion. I would consider that quite a stretch. Suited to their environment and creating their own environment are two different things. We are responsible for the sheep growth. We are at the top of the apex hierarchy, which means have to power to destroy every living creature on the planet including ourselves. I would call that evolutionary superiority. Man does kill and for most of recorded history killing has been deemed immoral.

  22. Chris M

    Chris M

    3 dagen geleden

    Still waiting. When did bacteria have gain in function/information and become a dog? Nowhere in the world does that occur. Besides all fossils having soft cell tissues in them is clear and abundant evidence evolution does not occur. There are not enough trillions and quadrillions of years for "mutations" required to have gained in function as soft cell tissues have how long a life? Your experiment does nothing but proves the existence of a "pre-programmed will to survive" or immunity as your body posses. Mankind did not evolve from apes or will they evolve into something other than humans. Transitional fossils? Where?

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      2 dagen geleden

      @Chris M "That is the events evolution proposes." No, it isn't.

    • Chris M

      Chris M

      2 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 That is the events evolution proposes.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      3 dagen geleden

      "When did bacteria [...] become a dog?" If bacteria became dogs, that would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

  23. Vinícius M

    Vinícius M

    3 dagen geleden

    E.Colocaust :(

  24. Chris Carriere

    Chris Carriere

    3 dagen geleden

    Isn't it possible to try and make bacteria evolve into eating stuff we treat as garbage ? Like idk all the "bad" gases etc. Could solve a lot of problems

  25. Stephanie Hyatt

    Stephanie Hyatt

    3 dagen geleden

    I hate to mention this, but unless you are composting your paper towels, use re-usable microfiber cloths that you can throw in the washer. I use them occasionally, but rarely for cleaning.

  26. Ismael Abufon

    Ismael Abufon

    3 dagen geleden

    12:31 ... I 100% read Gattaca haha

  27. Ismael Abufon

    Ismael Abufon

    3 dagen geleden

    The lucky 1% gets to reproduce..... like the super rich haha

  28. Peter Smoyer

    Peter Smoyer

    4 dagen geleden

    Space itself is the thing that is evolving. All the matter, energy and radiation that exists in the universe at one time fit into something the size of a soccer ball or perhaps a football stadium. It all came from space. It is all here to benefit space. Space would not be as expansive as it is without the matter and energy it created in less than one second.

  29. Antisocial Atheist

    Antisocial Atheist

    4 dagen geleden

    I could sit down and talk with that guy for days lol. Very interesting and informative. If I could meet him I'd have to thank him for his work

  30. Plum Amazing

    Plum Amazing

    4 dagen geleden

    The best example of this kind of research is a really old story by the author of 'Game of Thrones' George R.R Martin. It's one of his best. It's a short story called 'Sandkings'. There is the book on youtube. Also the outerlimits video also on youtube. Sorry I can't put up links you'll have to search youtube. Very scary one to read. I suspect you will like it. muhahaha

  31. Falsimer

    Falsimer

    4 dagen geleden

    When the music kicked in I got a wave of nostalgia. I saw your source, but what it reminded me of was the Majora's Mask Milk Bar Theme. The most simultaneously upbeat and sorrowful music I can think of right now. Only the first 5 or so notes of your music matched the Theme, but it was enough to spark my memory.

  32. Benjamin Márkus

    Benjamin Márkus

    4 dagen geleden

    that transfer process was suprisingly lax! :o i would’ve thought you’d want to do this under suction cabinet with purified atmosphere and such.

  33. sokin jon

    sokin jon

    4 dagen geleden

    “33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

  34. mbbs2008

    mbbs2008

    4 dagen geleden

    Perhaps this is adaptability? Quiet possible that bacteria have different (higher) adaptability potential then higher animals?. The bacteria still remained "bacteria" at the end, even after 30 years relentless "experimentation", and did no really "evolve" into a new species? Am I missing something?

  35. mike powers

    mike powers

    4 dagen geleden

    This is a great experiment in micro evolution and also acts as an experiment in macro evolution as well, if macro evolution were possible there would be signs after 70k generations but, that is not the case. No matter how resilient or mutated these samples are they are still E. coli bacteria and not E. coli/??? Or something completely different.

    • sokin jon

      sokin jon

      4 dagen geleden

      stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! SHAME on you, for promoting such wastefulness!!

  36. jonnyjazzz

    jonnyjazzz

    4 dagen geleden

    So this is what Chase is doing these days. Decided he liked the red-head look, too.

  37. Emmanuel N

    Emmanuel N

    4 dagen geleden

    Evolution really isn't true devolution or decay is much more realistic

  38. Tom James

    Tom James

    4 dagen geleden

    Where are the damn gloves?

  39. Máté Ócsai

    Máté Ócsai

    4 dagen geleden

    This video was amazing. I was hooked from the beginning.

  40. Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast

    Roberto Serrini • The Travelclast

    4 dagen geleden

    bounty blew my mind

  41. Ad Lakerveld

    Ad Lakerveld

    4 dagen geleden

    It seems dangerous to me learning bacteria to survive antibiotics

  42. X17

    X17

    4 dagen geleden

    This is a perfect plot for a disaster movie

  43. X17

    X17

    4 dagen geleden

    why 42 though?

  44. betaneptune

    betaneptune

    4 dagen geleden

    This is the great experiment Richard Dawkins describes in his book _The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution_!

  45. Ezgi Umut

    Ezgi Umut

    4 dagen geleden

    As far as I understand the environment in this experiment is strictly controlled with constant and optimal temperature and nutritional content. There are no other species present. E.coli to grow faster in such an environment is most likely explained by the fact that these bacteria evolve to spend less energy and time to adapt to different temperatures, nutritional shortages (ex. storing carbohydrates), and competing with other species, allowing them to concentrate all metabolic activity on growth and reproduction. Thus, the "constant improvement" proposed by the researcher is questionable. This is probably not an improvement, it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose) at the expense of others (adaptation to temperature, nutritional shortage, competition, etc.).

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      3 dagen geleden

      @Ezgi Umut "My comment is not a claim" Yes it is. You claimed that something was the most likely explanation, you must support this. You've also made a collection of claims in your new comment, and provided support for none of them. You're just making stuff up, no one cares.

    • Ezgi Umut

      Ezgi Umut

      3 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 My comment is not a claim, rather a necessary discussion before accepting that this experiment provides evidence to "continuous improvement" in a stable environment. I consider that it should be called continuous adaptation to the experiment's growth medium. The first generation E.coli of this experiment comes from the real world where it spent significant energy to preserve membrane potential to the changing electrolyte concentrations of its habitat, to adapt to temperature changes and nutritional content as well as producing multiple enzymes to produce energy from many non-glucose substrates. The hospitable and stable environment provided in this experiment is expected to result in selective atrophy of the aforementioned metabolic features of the bacterium that it gained to survive harsh living conditions; allowing more energy to be spent on growth and reproduction rather than metabolic defensive buffers, competition, etc. The researcher has to disprove this interpretation before concluding that continuous improvement takes place even in stable conditions. These bacteria are still adapting to this new friendly habitat (no fluctuations in sodium, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, citrate, ammonium concentrations, temperature, nutrition ) even if it has been going on for 30 years (which is not a long time) especially considering that it is markedly different from what the bacteria have evolved in millions of years. The atrophy of previously essential functions with environmental change has been described in many species even in vertebrates in Galapagos.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      4 dagen geleden

      @Ezgi Umut " It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world" This is your claim, present your evidence to support it.

    • Ezgi Umut

      Ezgi Umut

      4 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 the ability to grow without glucose (ex. metabolizing citrate) is a different discussion that takes place during the video. However, the main topic of interest that the researcher emphasizes at the conclusion is the constant improvement of the growth rate which concerns the bacteria incubated at the standard DM25 liquid medium (10% glucose). It is more likely that the outcome (growth rate) is better not because of progress, but rather from the atrophy of other metabolic functions that are necessary for life in the real world, that have become obsolete in this experiment method.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      4 dagen geleden

      "it is only an action of increasing the activity of only one vital metabolic function (growth by using glucose)" The interesting finding is that are able to grow in the complete absence of glucose. Are you sure you watched the video?

  46. hoiy vinosa

    hoiy vinosa

    5 dagen geleden

    “33 years ago, even on weekends ever since ..” Bacteria are annoyingly hard workers.

  47. Blue Five

    Blue Five

    5 dagen geleden

    I'm put in mind of 'The Outer Limits' episode 'Wolf 359'.

  48. Soapy's Thoughts

    Soapy's Thoughts

    5 dagen geleden

    This reminds me of Primer

  49. Yout Funny

    Yout Funny

    5 dagen geleden

    Evolution is Adaptation Adaptability

    • hoiy vinosa

      hoiy vinosa

      5 dagen geleden

      i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(

  50. Mary Ann Bittle

    Mary Ann Bittle

    5 dagen geleden

    Paper towels? Um, NO. Dish cloths, hand towels, sponges, all can be - get this - *WASHED* to sanitize them. No need, at ALL, to waste trees in order to wipe down the counter, stove, etc. It's WAY too wasteful to use paper towels! _SHAME on you,_ for promoting such wastefulness!!

  51. Robe005

    Robe005

    5 dagen geleden

    Damn, the ThermoFisher ad was awesome. Don't know what it was but the music and video were very satisfying:)

  52. Fred Bach

    Fred Bach

    5 dagen geleden

    No we're not viewing evolution as it happens. You are describing 'minor evolution' which is an adaptation to environment. It's still the same bug. It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. And the corn is still corn. Major evolution would result in a different bacterium or a different plant. I wish you evolutionists would stop lying to us. Stop using the smoke screen of minor evolution to prove that major evolution is a fact.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      4 dagen geleden

      ​@Fred Bach "That was a library addition using Crisper " I don't know which experiment you're talking about, but it isn't any of the ones featured in this video. "Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli." 'E coli' is a species designation, and species designations are human labels for human abstractions of populations. A sub population of E coli is no longer E coli when humans decide it, and by the ecotype conception of species delimitation the Ara-3 strain is already a new species. "Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome?" The citrate ability comes from a novel mutation, as confirmed by genomic sequencing of the ancestral and descendant strains. " If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? " Sounds like you just suggested it can't be evolution if *more* evolution happens afterwards. I hope that isn't what you intended, since that would be silly.

    • Fred Bach

      Fred Bach

      5 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 the bugs were given a Rogues gallery of what compounds to be immune to. For instance the square carbon ring in penicillin family drugs. That was a library addition using Crisper.... rather than a genetic mutation. Your username comes from that process. It's still an E-coli with a bigger library and a genetic variation. This ability is given to most lifeforms. Let me know when it turns into something that is not an E-coli. Does the citrate ability come via the Rogues' Gallery or from elsewhere in the genome? If the latter, what will happen if you took the citrate away for 75000 generations? Might it lose its ability to handle citrate? This reminds me of the moths in England that turned from a light shade to a dark shade and back to light again when the air pollution was cleaned up. I know you will attribute that to preditors. You actually need to do the other half of the experiment and put the new bug in an old environment for 75000 generations and see what it gains and loses.

    • Null Pointer

      Null Pointer

      5 dagen geleden

      lots of small changes eventually make large changes...

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      5 dagen geleden

      "No we're not viewing evolution as it happens." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "It's still the same bug." It isn't the same, the descendant can use citrate as a sole carbon source, which the ancestor could not. They have identified the mutations responsible, which were not present in the ancestor. It is demonstrably different. "It hasn't turned into another kind of bacteria. " 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity. "Major evolution would result in a different bacterium" Then mission accomplished, as explained above. "or a different plant." If any of the descendants of bacteria were plants, that would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would actually disprove that thing is a fairly clear indication you don't understand the subject in the first place.

  53. Oogie Padoogie

    Oogie Padoogie

    6 dagen geleden

    And in 30 more years (equivalent to 3 million years from the start), still nothing cool happened. Yawn.

  54. Fred Leonard

    Fred Leonard

    6 dagen geleden

    Time for flask beer pong?

  55. patricio patricio

    patricio patricio

    6 dagen geleden

    when you touch the elbow for said hi don't keep social distance needed for prevent covid

  56. Adnan haider

    Adnan haider

    6 dagen geleden

    New Hollywood movie plot, Planet of the Bacteria.

    • Polaris Raven

      Polaris Raven

      4 dagen geleden

      So, as opposed to a Grey Goo scenario (Out of control Nano-Bot Replicators), this would be a Green Goo scenario?

  57. random black hole

    random black hole

    6 dagen geleden

    So "life finds a way" even if it doesn't need to?

  58. Jorjon Jorjon

    Jorjon Jorjon

    6 dagen geleden

    Imagine if we are just an experiment inside an alien race flask, and we die because otherwise the experiment would become unmanageable.

  59. LoBoToM81

    LoBoToM81

    6 dagen geleden

    That was interesting.

  60. Scott Pike

    Scott Pike

    6 dagen geleden

    33 years and it’s still bacteria.

    • Random Dude

      Random Dude

      6 dagen geleden

      Just as evolution predicts.

  61. avadhut patil

    avadhut patil

    6 dagen geleden

    Everyone gangsta until bacteria evolve to have collective consciousness

  62. tarkaras

    tarkaras

    6 dagen geleden

    i just love the hippie labcoat at 11.50 :-) ....sadly not gonna happen in my lab :-(

    • miko foin

      miko foin

      6 dagen geleden

      millennia of “hominid” evolution? So how long did it take to get to “hominid” again? Would you mind taking me through that process, even theoretically, step by step? I’m very

  63. Mohammad Hasanain

    Mohammad Hasanain

    7 dagen geleden

    Tell me when the bacteria becomes a fish🤫

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      4 dagen geleden

      @Mohammad Hasanain "ok so you flipped to racism" Excuse me? That's a substantial accusation. Either support it or retract it. " I am a native speaker" Then the educational system has failed you. "and you judge me by my name" I judged you by your obvious inability to communicate in English. I had given you the benefit of the doubt that you were able to at least communicate in some other language. If you claim you're just incoherent generally, I'll take your word for it. When you've learned how words work and what a reasonable number of them mean, feel free to revisit this conversation and try again.

    • Mohammad Hasanain

      Mohammad Hasanain

      4 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 ok so you flipped to racism what would you do if I was in your county just god knows. All the things you talked about are things I can feel their influence but I can't feel the influence of the precious evolution. write what ever you want now, I will not answer you because I am a native speaker and you judge me by my name "science guy"

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      5 dagen geleden

      @Mohammad Hasanain "it's clear that you don't understand what am I saying" Given the fact that I am a native speaker of the language we're using, and I'm guessing you are not, I'd say that it is *much* more likely the problem is that *you* don't understand what I am saying. "so just answer this question, when was there any proof and I mean proof on evolution" Same time as there was proof of gravity: Never. There is no proof in science. If you deny evolution because there is no 'proof' then you must also deny gravity, electricity, the existence of microbes, and the reality of your own mind. Because you can't 'prove' any of them.

    • Mohammad Hasanain

      Mohammad Hasanain

      5 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 it's clear that you don't understand what am I saying or don't want to so just answer this question, when was there any proof and I mean proof on evolution and something transforming to something else like an ape or fish caroling out of the see 🤷🏽‍♂️

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      5 dagen geleden

      @Mohammad Hasanain "so science doesn't work on proof is that correct?" Yes. "If it is you're talking about a new science you invented" No. "and if you said "observed " an observation is enough proof for such a thing" An observation isn't proof. It is a data point that increases confidence. "where was it observed can you tell me?" PMC3277146 & PMC4380822, and others. "What I meant when I talked about the experiment was that it didn't happen in this experiment while it was this long, when can it happen?" Here's your logic, spot the error: "I just flipped a coin 5 times and didn't roll a six, therefore rolling a six with a fair die is impossible!" "So if I told you that I'm confident the moon is made of cheese" I'd be curious as to what statistical analysis you based that on, but strongly suspect you just didn't understand what I mean by 'confidence'. I'm using a statistical definition, not a common one.

  64. Psychentist

    Psychentist

    7 dagen geleden

    Love the turbulent flow Tshirt. LOL. This little feud is hilarious and I'm here for it.

  65. Larry Panozzo

    Larry Panozzo

    7 dagen geleden

    Generation 69,000: E. Coli have spelled out the words, “Let us out.”

  66. kolim jone

    kolim jone

    7 dagen geleden

    I would love to sit in the lectures of this professor. It is so pleasant to hear him explain!

  67. isaiah

    isaiah

    7 dagen geleden

    Lol, evolution isn’t real. There settled

    • Null Pointer

      Null Pointer

      5 dagen geleden

      lol, nobody of any relevance cares about your opinion.

  68. avitarmageddon

    avitarmageddon

    7 dagen geleden

    Let's hope those bacterium are not harmful to life around them when they escape. I'm not qualified to know whether they represent a danger or not but I do know that no containment protocols are 100% guaranteed, never can be.

    • Heinrich Himla

      Heinrich Himla

      4 dagen geleden

      i feel as if they wont survive well in the wild considering they're evolving in extremely favourable conditions for them

  69. Texas Ray

    Texas Ray

    7 dagen geleden

    What kind of idiots want to breed bacteria that are immune to antibiotics?

  70. Eren JAEGER

    Eren JAEGER

    7 dagen geleden

    I wonder if it’s possible for a mutation to arise where it produces an antibiotic that it is immune to but the other members of the population aren’t. It would probably require a long chain of silent mutations to occur in a very specific way and the resistance ability would have to evolve shortly before the antibiotic ability otherwise it may be too prevalent in the population

  71. Classic Riki

    Classic Riki

    7 dagen geleden

    This is extremely interesting, brilliant video all around. Something very disturbing about watching these bacteria evolve rapidly and seeing the rate explained compared to earth 🌍 while having seen them wearing masks due to Covid

  72. Micro Scale

    Micro Scale

    7 dagen geleden

    Can anyone please explain why he used fluorescent powder and uv torch? Please please please🙏🙏🙏🙏🙄

  73. Dylan Birrer

    Dylan Birrer

    8 dagen geleden

    absolute champ, this video is exactly what I need for the biology assessment I'm doing, there's so much useful information and you made me think about what I'm writing in a different light as well.

  74. Strange Velocity

    Strange Velocity

    8 dagen geleden

    0:59 Before I watch this video again.. Where can I get that t shirt? :O

  75. pNsB

    pNsB

    8 dagen geleden

    People saying “but they’re still bacteria” really have no clue how evolution works XD

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      2 dagen geleden

      @Hassan Selim "where no longer bacteria (eg: they became multicellular?)" Becoming multicellular wouldn't make them no longer bacteria. In fact, there *are* multicellular bacteria. Bacteria is a clade, and you can't escape your ancestry. Your descendants must always be in the same clades you are in, under evolutionary theory.

    • Hassan Selim

      Hassan Selim

      2 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 thank you for your great explanations, I just have a question about a statement you made. You said that if by the end of the experiment the resulting creatures where no longer bacteria (eg: they became multicellular?) then it would disprove evolution. Why is that?

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      7 dagen geleden

      @Stay Tune Kaison "no you cannot have one without the only" Organisms exist with one and not the other, so you are demonstrably wrong.

    • Stay Tune Kaison

      Stay Tune Kaison

      7 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 no you cannot have one without the only if you shoot someone an the heart stops the brain continues functioning for a while before it stops so it shows if u do have one without the other it won’t last very long And example would be a lizard an it’s take if you cut a lizards take it will still be moving for a little bit it will stop so it cannot work wit a much more complicated things such as the brain or the heart

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      7 dagen geleden

      @Stay Tune Kaison "Darwin and his discovery on the birds beaks was that evolution or adaptation" If we interpret the differences as adaptive, then it was adaptation. Regardless, it was absolutely evolution, since we've documented the changes in their genomes for the different populations. "and let’s move to Darwinian evolution" You want to 'move on' to something 150 years out of date? "so before humans existed the heart had to evolve and grow so did the brain" Apes have hearts. So do mammals. So do amniotes. So do vertebrates. So do chordates. But by the time you are back to basal chordates, you are talking about a 'heart' that is a single enlarged, centralized, and slightly more heavily muscled ventricle that is fully homologous with the distributed vesicles of other deuterostomes. Which are, in turn, homologous with the types of vesicles found in protostomes. Which is basically just a slightly increased musculature around a vessel to improve lymph circulation, which isn't even needed for the smallest organisms. And that is to say it is, in comparison to a human heart, *much* less than half a heart. And yet it worked just fine for those organisms in their environment. So you can actually trace the development of hearts all the way back to a point where they weren't even needed. You can do the same for brains. " so which came first cause you can’t have one without the other? " You absolutely can have one without the other. "When the first bacteria appeared it had to eat but the senses weren’t a thing so how did it know where to eat or eyes weren’t thing so how did it find it’s food again with no senses" The same way bacteria find food now, since they don't have eyes now either.

  76. David Ghetto

    David Ghetto

    8 dagen geleden

    No gloves lol

  77. gregormann7

    gregormann7

    8 dagen geleden

    The brainwashing on this subject is surpassed by no other! Absolutely astonishing. So 75,000 generations of bacteria becoming. . . um, bacteria. . . is the equivalent of 1500 millennia of “hominid” evolution? So how long did it take to get to “hominid” again? Would you mind taking me through that process, even theoretically, step by step? I’m very interested to know just how the suite of organs that fill the torso evolved into a coordinated interacting interdependent group of unique components comprising complex animal life. Like bacteria. . .becoming bacteria. And please, no assumed “populations” for a starting point.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      8 dagen geleden

      "And please, no assumed “populations” for a starting point." Explain evolution, but don't talk about evolution? Sounds like you don't know what the subject is in the first place.

  78. Adriana Gabriela

    Adriana Gabriela

    8 dagen geleden

    Well, this looks like a disaster waiting to happen (one day)

  79. Abhin Aravind

    Abhin Aravind

    8 dagen geleden

    Yet people say Darwin is wrong and God is real 😂😂

    • srak 123

      srak 123

      7 dagen geleden

      Darwin doesn't have to be false for g-d to exist

  80. Dan K

    Dan K

    8 dagen geleden

    So then one of these bacteria gets loose and infects the human population and low and behold there is no antibiotic that can save us. Did we not learn anything from the covid lab leak in wuhan???

  81. Shipwright

    Shipwright

    8 dagen geleden

    Congrats! Sounds like a billion dollar experiment to prove how different breeds of dogs are possible. 😆

  82. Rahul Raj

    Rahul Raj

    8 dagen geleden

    Religion has left the chat

  83. Reyhan Alhafizal

    Reyhan Alhafizal

    9 dagen geleden

    I thought this video was about artificial neural network. Dammit.

  84. LDPC

    LDPC

    9 dagen geleden

    Read a great book about this (and other experiments like it) on a flight the other day, Improbable Destinies by Jonathan Losos. In case anyone wants to go even more in depth!

  85. ShadowdragonBAD

    ShadowdragonBAD

    9 dagen geleden

    Mirco evolution and natural selection/Adaptation is a cool thing.

  86. Lorica Lass

    Lorica Lass

    9 dagen geleden

    You have been told over and over that change is Evolution. It is not. You are different from your parents and grandparents. But you are all still 100% Homo sapiens. Likewise, bacteria change. But they stay 100% bacteria in their bacterial domain. Bacteria have been observed since 1670, pretty much around the clock and around the world. Ancient fossilized bacteria have been found. They all have been nothing but bacteria. Change is not evolution. That is just one of the ridiculous mantras and myths used to support a pseudoscience narrative. You are not an ape or bacteria update. Find out who you really are. Look outside the box. The truth is there.

    • Preetha O.C

      Preetha O.C

      7 dagen geleden

      @Lorica Lass What I said is the definition of evolution, so by definition the bacteria did evolve. Evolution doesn't say a bacteria will become a non bacteria, it literally says the opposite. WHY IS IT SO HARD FOR YOU TO UNDERSTAND THAT? A species can become a different species, but it can't change its domain, kingdom, class, genus, etc.

    • Lorica Lass

      Lorica Lass

      7 dagen geleden

      @Preetha O.C You think that bacteria steadfastly staying nothing but bacteria is somehow showing Evolution. Do you think if you toss out the words allele frequency that just explains everything? It explains zero to support your case. The bacteria are still bacteria in their bacterial domain. They haven’t changed into a non-bacteria. They are no way evolving. There is zero evidence that any bacteria at any time has ever become a non-bacteria. There’s a lot of data about bacteria though! It’s all over the world presently and recorded from history. What does the real data show? Anything about allele frequencies to support Evolution? No it just shows bacteria staying bacteria. Every single time.Bacteria stay bacteria. Try to grasp that. Bacteria that stay bacteria aint evolving. This is a really simple concept. Try to wrap your head around it. If you can’t understand that then you have no right to be calling someone else stupid. Goodbye!

    • Preetha O.C

      Preetha O.C

      7 dagen geleden

      @Lorica Lass Kent Hovind doesn't understand evolution (or he is a con man that lies for a living, which is most likely the case). He has been corrected multiple times and still repeats the same stupidity.

    • Preetha O.C

      Preetha O.C

      7 dagen geleden

      @Lorica Lass I literally explained that evolution doesn't say a bacteria will become a non bacteria, it will become a different species of bacteria. Every descendant of every organism will be a part of every clade it's ancestor was part of EVEN IF it creates a new clade. One SPECIES can become a different species, but no other clade can change. Evolution is the change in allele frequencies of a population with generations, so even if it doesn't become a new species, it can still be considered evolution.

    • Lorica Lass

      Lorica Lass

      7 dagen geleden

      @Preetha O.C I’m sorry but your post doesn’t make any sense to me. You have been trying to deal in the imaginary, and the never seen, to defend your faith in evolution. You’re speculating about something that has never been seen, while ignoring all the great history of what has been seen. No such thing as a bacteria turning into a non-bacteria has ever happened. But we do know for sure that if a bacteria stays bacteria in its bacterial domain,it ain’t showing any evolution! It is showing the exact opposite of evolution. Therefore this whole video is based on a fantasy. You are believing a fantasy. Wake up. You are being had. Learn to think. Learn to do critical thinking. This is all so obvious. I should not have to repeat the obvious. I gave a reference of a video above which points out the absurdities of evolution over and over. Based on observable scientific data. If you don’t see the obvious, and you don’t want to look outside the box, then nothing further that I have to say to you will compute with you. Therefore, nothing personal, but to keep from wasting your precious time and mine you are now on mute. I pray that you will learn to see through scam artists like Richard Dawkins who tell you that you came from a bacteria, while ignoring the fact that, as I said already, all the evidence, even from ancient fossils, show that bacteria stay bacteria. Period. Yes, they changed somewhat. But they stay bacteria.

  87. Misha Kos

    Misha Kos

    9 dagen geleden

    great watch

  88. evangelizarEC

    evangelizarEC

    9 dagen geleden

    Here is a key question, how long will it take for this E. coli to turn into Salmonella? Or into Bacillus or Listeria?

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      8 dagen geleden

      @evangelizarEC "shows the equivalent hominid evolution" From Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. So still Homo. Of course, that happened in a population with a smaller effective population size and higher mutation rate in a highly variable and changing environment, all of which increases the rate you might expect differences to accumulate. "you still have E. coli but with one lineage able to consume citrate" Whether or not it is still E coli depends on how one delimits species. By 3% 16S, it would still be E coli, by ecotype delimitation, it would be a new species. But it would never be any currently extant species, because that's not how evolution works.

    • evangelizarEC

      evangelizarEC

      8 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 And I'm sure you'll be able to explain it to me so would like to hear it from you. What I'm pointing out is what is implied from the video (~2:20 shows the equivalent hominid evolution... at the end ~11 min, you still have E. coli but with one lineage able to consume citrate) - the changes observed are adaptations to the environment (~min 6-7). That's the discrepancy, according to the timeline portrayed, while hominids change... E. Coli stays E. Coli but now 1/12 of it can consume citrate. I'm anticipating that in another 3 decades... one will still find E. Coli.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      9 dagen geleden

      If that's how you think evolution works, you don't understand how evolution works.

  89. viiont eooiy

    viiont eooiy

    9 dagen geleden

    The existence of this experiment warms my heart. Such good data!

  90. A. M. Mustofa Sorwar

    A. M. Mustofa Sorwar

    9 dagen geleden

    12:25, the citrate phenotype was not the product of random mutation. Because this particular trait cannot be obtained from the same sample which means the experiment result is not reproduceable rendering the hypothesis unscientific. I think, this is how all species appeared from previous generation all on a sudden not gradually. But its not by so called "evolution" as claimed by Darwin. Its divine. BTW, human is extraterrestrial unlike others!!!

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      9 dagen geleden

      "Because this particular trait cannot be obtained from the same sample which means the experiment result is not reproduceable" It can and it has.

  91. Alexandre Frascari

    Alexandre Frascari

    9 dagen geleden

    Evolution or adaptation? ... After 75000 generations, equivalent to 1 million years ... still a bacteria

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      9 dagen geleden

      "Evolution or adaptation?" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. " still a bacteria" If it wasn't still bacteria, that would disprove evolution. You just asked as evidence for a thing something that contradicts that thing. Which suggests you don't have a single solitary clue what evolution actually is in the first place.

  92. Oceanic Opps

    Oceanic Opps

    9 dagen geleden

    Isn’t this adaptation not evolution? It’s still ecoli, it’s not evolving into a human, it’s simply adapting and remaining the same being.

    • Preetha O.C

      Preetha O.C

      7 dagen geleden

      @Oceanic Opps It gained the ability to eat something that it previously couldn't. That is not like us eating a new dish.

    • Oceanic Opps

      Oceanic Opps

      9 dagen geleden

      @Nicholas Leclerc when you try new foods do you turn super human?

    • Nicholas Leclerc

      Nicholas Leclerc

      9 dagen geleden

      For Christ's sake, it literally gained the ability to eat a new molecule ! It's at least a new genus in its entirety !!!

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      9 dagen geleden

      "Isn’t this adaptation not evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "It’s still ecoli, it’s not evolving into a human" If E coli gave rise to humans, that would disprove evolution. You understand that, right? Because it looks like you just asked for a thing as evidence in support of evolution that would be directly contrary to evolution, which is only possible if you have a gross conceptual misunderstanding of what evolution is in the first place. "and remaining the same being." The Ara-3 strain *isn't* the same, they have a change in allele frequencies with respect to their ancestors, specifically a novel allele not found in their ancestors. Which performs a function not found in their ancestors. You know, *exactly* the sort of thing evolution predicts.

  93. Vladimir Tsibulsky

    Vladimir Tsibulsky

    9 dagen geleden

    It is unbelievable how many misunderstandings are there about Darwin's evolution. Unfortunately many of them can be found in this video. First, Lenski's experiment is not about Darwin's evolution whose book was titled "On the Origin of Species". E.coli is not a species and, respectively, there is no way that an adaptation process can result in the origin of a new E.coli species. Second, Darwin is not an author of concepts of adaptation or natural selection. They were proposed long before him. In fact, Lenski's experiment is about adaptation and origin of new variants of a bacteria proliferating by mitosis (in contrast to meiosis required for Darwinian evolution). As an example of evolution, Darwin talks about evolution from bears to whales (because bears swim for hours). In contrast adaptation talks about an ability to survive in the presence of a toxin, for example again. The analogous for this would be development of tolerance to a mosquito or snake bite in humans. The list might be continued. Lenski's experiment did not change our view on evolution of species at all, because it could not. This is the first time I click 'dislike' button.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      8 dagen geleden

      @Vladimir Tsibulsky "now you are demonstrating that your hypothesis is not falsifiable." I just demonstrated precisely how a species hypothesis is falsified. "By the way, it is not my hypothesis, it is yours." No, it is not. I agree with the current species hypothesis of humans, which includes all of humans in a single group. It is well supported by the evidence. "In my opinion, species is not a hypothesis, but physical entity. " Then show me a 'species' absent any organisms. If you can't, you are wrong and it isn't a physical entity. "For detail, please read any handbool on biology." Okay, they agree with me.

    • Vladimir Tsibulsky

      Vladimir Tsibulsky

      8 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 now you are demonstrating that your hypothesis is not falsifiable. By the way, it is not my hypothesis, it is yours. In my opinion, species is not a hypothesis, but physical entity. For detail, please read any handbool on biology.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      8 dagen geleden

      @Vladimir Tsibulsky "Isn't it obvious: the have different anatomy, different functions, different life span, psychology etc" So you have a criteria on which to base your species hypothesis, now are the groups delimited by that criteria more closely related to one another than to any members of the other group? It turns out they are not, and so some men are more closely related to some women than to some other men, and so your species hypothesis is falsified. Do you understand how it works yet?

    • Vladimir Tsibulsky

      Vladimir Tsibulsky

      8 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 Isn't it obvious: they have different anatomy, different functions, different life span, different genoms, different psychology etc. I hope you can pretty quickly divide a group of people into two quite different groups: men and women. Each group will agree that 'yes, we are different'.

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      8 dagen geleden

      @Vladimir Tsibulsky "It seems, that according to your definition, men and women are different species." Are you saying you think all men are more closely related to one another than any of them are to any woman?

  94. MSF

    MSF

    9 dagen geleden

    The obvious problem ..bactaria does what bactaria does. Other stuff doesn't do what bactaria does. It does what other stuff does.. So if the suggestion is "this proves evolution" -it doesn't! It just proves bactaria does what it exists to do. And never changes from doing it.

  95. Sean Hochman

    Sean Hochman

    9 dagen geleden

    dang, this dude is smart af

  96. Agasthya Ram

    Agasthya Ram

    9 dagen geleden

    Please don't tell me corona virus is going to mutate the same way, and survive 100 times the concentration of the vaccine.

  97. RinZ

    RinZ

    9 dagen geleden

    Could you make a response video to Kent Hovind his '"claims" about evolution?

    • To Serve Man

      To Serve Man

      9 dagen geleden

      No. Avoid bogging yourself down in the mire of *reacting* to fools. Frame information linearly the way YOU want to, not as a response to someone's strawmen. Veritasium COULD make a vid of the evidences of hard speciation and note there in that words like "species" and "genus" and "families" and "orders" etc are made up by people and arbitrarily applied.

  98. A B

    A B

    10 dagen geleden

    Mutation != Evolution

    • Preetha O.C

      Preetha O.C

      7 dagen geleden

      @Crispr CAS9 Technically, isn't mutations what causes evolution and not evolution itself? (I know the original comment probably isn't saying that in that way).

    • Crispr CAS9

      Crispr CAS9

      9 dagen geleden

      Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, and heritable mutations change the allele frequency from 0 to 1/N over two successive generations. So heritable mutations are evolution by definition. And all mutations in bacteria are heritable, so in this case you are literally completely wrong.

  99. StuffandThings

    StuffandThings

    10 dagen geleden

    You know, I think the planet Earth might just have you beat by a few billion years...

  100. Sigma PGE

    Sigma PGE

    10 dagen geleden

    Bounty is a COMPLETE rip-off. "4 rolls = 5 rolls!", or, "10 rolls = 12 rolls"... Just do some basic math. Bounty is ripping you all off with BS false advertising claims on their packaging. Eat 💩, Bounty!

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